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Beyond the nation? In search of global connections between traumatic memories
This special issue draws on the emerging literature on memory and trauma in international relations to transcend the limits imposed by national frameworks and traditional ways of thinking about ethnic relations and identity politics. Engaging feminist, constructivist, legal and other theories, this collection of articles develops connective approaches to the study of traumatic memories that help to understand practices of non-state actors in the global arena.

Contents and articles.

Labour migrants: working and living conditions in Lithuania

Contents and articles.

Identities in migration and border areas

Contents and articles.

(Un)equal opportunities in education: analysis of early withdrawal of Roma children from school in Vilnius

Summary of the study.

Ethnicity in southeastern Lithuania: between history and current social processes

Contents and articles.

Implementation of the EU asylum policy: legal and sociological focus

Contents and articles.


This issue of Ethnicity Studies is based on scientific articles prepared as a result of the implementation of the research project “Social Challenges for ethnic minority and new migrant groups after Lithuania’s accession to the EU” financed by the Research Council of Lithuania. The aim of the project was to conceptualise ethnic processes taking place in Lithuania after its accession to the European Union, i.e. to investigate and compare integration processes involving new immigrants (citizens of Russia, Belarus and Ukraine who came to Lithuania after 2004) and Lithuanian ethnic minorities (Russians, Belarusians and Ukrainians).
Contents and articles.

This issue of Ethnicity Studies presents the latest research results on identity of ethnic minorities in three Baltic states. Dovilė Budrytė’s article traces the processes of political community building in Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia from the times of national revival to accession to the European Union. Evija Kļave analyses the use of the Latvian and Russian languages in Latvia analysing the different models of language choice in every day interaction in public and private environments. Monika Frėjutė-Rakauskienė’s article explores trajectories of Russian identity in Lithuania and Latvia. Kristina Šliavaitė’s article discusses issues of Belarusian identity that is little explored in Lithuanian social research.
Contents and articles.

This issue of Ethnicity Studies covers a wide range of topics – starting with analytical insights on research of collective identities, a historical study of transatlantic emigration of Lithuanians and Jews from the Lithuanian provinces of Russia to the West during 1867–1914, management of ethnic/religious conflicts in the Norwegian society, and ending with a study of ethnic intolerance in Lithuanian media and an analysis of school-level practices towards Roma students. The issue also presents results of public opinion surveys conducted by the Institute of Ethnic Studies in the period 2005–2010 and a list of publications on ethnic issues published in Lithuania in 2007–2009.
Contents and articles.

Migrant Integration: Third Country Nationals in Lithuania
This thematic issue was prepared as part of the project Third Country Nationals in Lithuania: Assessment and Indexes of Integration Policy. An article by Karolis Žibas provides a comprehensive analysis of empirical data on third country nationals that immigrated to and lived in Lithuania after its accession to the EU (2004–2008). Analysing national programs, state strategies and other documents that regulate immigration and integration of migrants in Lithuania, Vija Platačiūtė and Karolis Žibas provide an overview of policy priorities, revealing political neglect of integration issues of third country nationals living in Lithuania. An article by Jakob Hurle provides a comparative background for debating policy prospects in countries such as Lithuania, by reviewing migration and integration policies in Czech Republic, Poland and Sweden. Results of an empirical study of attitudes and experiences of third country nationals are presented in the article by Vida Beresnevičiūtė, Tadas Leončikas, and Karolis Žibas. The issue concludes with recommendations for integration measures and a list of indexes created for monitoring of integration policies and processes.
Contents and articles.

Monika Frėjutė-Rakauskienė. Ethnic Intolerance in the Lithuanian Press
This thematic issue presents a study of ethnic intolerance and its forms and manifestations in the Lithuanian press by Monika Frėjutė-Rakauskienė. In the study, concepts of ethnic intolerance and discursive ethnic intolerance are discussed and contemporary research of ethnic intolerance in the media is reviewed. The author presents results of a qualitative content analysis of Lithuanian press (main daily newspapers and internet news portals in Lithuanian language were monitored in 2005–2007) and results of expert interviews. The conducted research revealed prevalent forms and manifestations of ethnic intolerance in the Lithuanian press, directed against Jewish, Roma, Polish and other ethnic groups. The study also discusses policy principles of prevention of ethnic intolerance applied in various EU member-states and reviews how concepts of ethnic/racial intolerance and xenophobia are defined in working documents of various EU institutions and other organisations, working in the area of prevention of ethnic intolerance.

Study in Lithuanian.
Summary of the study in English.

The articles in this issue of Ethnicity Studies analyse questions of registration of ethnicity in historical and recent censuses, construction of social inequality in public discourse, analysis of inter-ethnic relations in education, and issues of social integration of Roma, refugees and immigrants.
Contents and articles.

Russians in Baltic Sea Region: minority and state
This thematic issue presents a collection of articles analysing aspects of social development of Russian minority in the Baltic Sea region, with a special focus on three countries – Lithuania, Latvia and Finland. The issue opens with articles presenting social situation of Russians in the aforementioned countries, analysing strategies of social adaptation, issues of Russian ethnic behaviour in social structuration and creation of civic society, as well as an impact of Russian non-governmental organisations on ethnic consolidation of Russian minority in Lithuania. Other articles examine sociocultural tendencies in Russian mass media – changes in Lithuanian media in Russian language after 1990 are analysed and the role of media in Russian language in Finland is presented. The last chapter of the issue presents a historical retrospective – an overview of research on Old-Believers in Lithuania in different historical periods and a study of various aspects of social situation of Russian minority in the inter-war period (1918–1940).
Contents and articles.

Tadas Leončikas. Assimilation in Contemporary Lithuanian Society: Choosing the Language of Education
The study presented in this issue examines the main trend of assimilation in contemporary Lithuania, that is, assimilation into the majority society. The study reviews sociological concepts of assimilation, appraises age structures of different ethnic groups, analyses prevalence of mother-tongue languages and characteristics of residents who did not declare their ethnicity, as well as distribution of ethnic groups in educational sectors. In the article, data of a survey of first-graders’ parents is analysed. The study highlights the role of ethnic majority in assimilation processes and discusses barriers for assimilation experienced by non-Lithuanian individuals in Lithuania today. The work extends and complements the studies of ethnic processes that deal with changing ethnic structure of society and formation of different social segments in ethnic groups.

The study is in Lithuanian, the issue can be purchased at the Institute for Ethnic Studies.
Summary of the study in English.

Ethnic Intolerance
This thematic issue presents a collection of articles analysing manifestations of ethnic intolerance in Lithuania. The issue opens with a review of recent tendencies of ethnic intolerance and xenophobia in Lithuania. Several articles in the issue analyse manifestations of ethnic intolerance and xenophobia in public discourse: the role of media in dissemination and promotion of ethnic/racial intolerance is emphasised, and the extent of ethnic intolerance in Lithuanian media is evaluated. Other articles present a comprehensive overview of the development of right-wing extremism in Lithuania, a study of problems in education of Roma children, and a study by Norwegian researchers Pål Kolstø and Guri Tyldum on possibilities of social cohesion in post-soviet Russia.
Contents and articles.

V. Beresnevičiūtė. Dimensions of Social Integration of Ethnic Groups in the Contemporary Society of Lithuania
This thematic issue presents a study of a sociologist Vida Beresnevičiūtė that analyses the structure of social integration of ethnic groups. The author argues that sociological study of inter-ethnic relations should be based on the analysis of positions occupied by ethnic groups in the social structure, that is, an assumption is made that social position of an individual (analysed through social relations and available social resources) has an impact on the construction of ethnic identity and inter-ethnic relations as well as individual strategies of social integration. This research perspective allows expanding the understanding of participation of ethnic groups in societal life and provides analytic tools (such as study of ethnic structure of public, private and non-governmental sectors) for evaluation of social importance of ethnicity in every day life.

The study is in Lithuanian, the issue can be purchased at the Institute for Ethnic Studies.
Summary of the study in English.

Perceptions of European Integration
This thematic issue is dedicated to the ethnic dimension of referendums on accession to the European Union. The articles analyse situation in Eastern and Central European countries where relatively numerous ethnic minorities live: in some cases attitudes of ethnic minorities on European integration differed from the ethnic majority. Data is provided about societies in the three Baltic states, Slovakia, and Slovenia; this information is useful for comparative research and analysis of regional trends. New challenges and opportunities in the EU are discussed, especially issues of the formation of European identity and new processes of migration. Attitudes of Romanian society towards EU integration are presented.  In addition, minority and migration policy in Italy is discussed.
Contents and articles.

Social Adaptation of Ethnic Minorities
This publication discusses on the possibility to develop ethnicity studies through the adaptation researches. Articles analyze ethnic groups as well as the theoretical concept of adaptation to the social context and the changes which take place in this concept. What is the base of ethnic processes in contemporary society, what methods are suitable for investigating it, what methods of analysis may be involved in order to understand the situation of ethnic groups members and choices of so-called “post-communist societies” – these and other issues are explored in articles of this issue.
Contents and articles.