Ethnicity Studies 2009/2

Migrant Integration: Third Country Nationals in Lithuania

Karolis Žibas International migration in Lithuania: problems and concepts

Article in Lithuanian

Karolis Žibas Immigration Trends of Third Country Nationals in Lithuania (2004-2008)

This article provides a comprehensive analysis of empirical data on third country nationals that immigrated to and lived in Lithuania after its accession to the EU (2004-2008). This information is indispensable for the research of immigration and integration policies and is therefore provided within the broader context of immigration to Lithuania. In order to obtain comparative results, various categories of immigrants are analysed. First, the main tendencies of recent immigration and the newest data of third country nationals living in Lithuanian municipalities are presented. Special attention is given to various demographic characteristics of third country nationals, such as sex, citizenship, grounds for arrival, profession, age group, etc. Second, labour migration is analysed as the most important pattern of current immigration and the main socio-demographic characteristics of labour migrants are identified. Finally, concluding statements on the main tendencies of the immigration of third country nationals to Lithuania and the structure of immigration are provided.

Article in Lithuanian

Karolis Žibas, Vija Platačiūtė Lithuanian Immigration Policy and Preconditions for Integration of Third Country Nationals

Analysing national programs, state strategies, and other documents that regulate processes of immigration and integration of migrants in Lithuania, the article provides an overview of policy priorities in this field. Employing theoretical models of migration policy-making (Brettell and Hollifield (2000), Castles (2004), MaÉrmora (1999), the study covers all types of immigration and all categories of migrants living in Lithuania. The study reveals that until 2007, Lithuanian immigration policy could be classified as ad hoc since it was not based on any strategic document. The new strategy of immigration policy adopted in 2007 is the first systematic attempt to regulate immigration flows. The current immigration policy of Lithuania is country-selective, favouring migrants from Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine, and the southern Caucasus region. However, the analysis shows that the only target group of integration policy remains asylum seekers, while integration issues of third country nationals living in the Lithuania is neglected.

Article in Lithuanian

Jakob Hurrle Development of a Monitoring Framework for Migration and Integration Policy: Czech Republic, Poland and Sweden

Prepared as part of the project Third Country Nationals in Lithuania: Assessment and Indexes of Integration Policy, this article contrasts selected aspects of the experience of the Czech Republic and Poland, the two countries in central and Eastern Europe that attract the largest number of immigrants to the region, with Sweden as an old immigration country, which is often considered as one of the most positive examples of a functioning integration policy. Providing a comparative view of key aspects of migration and integration reality in the countries concerned, the article puts the migration policies of the Czech Republic and Poland into a wider context in order to shed some light on the question whether Czech and Polish policy makers have been able to use the opportunity to learn from the experiences of others. The article further provides an overview of the methodological experiences of the Czech Republic, Sweden and Poland, including highlights for the assessment of migration and integration policies and information about statistical data. The paper provides a comparative background for debating policy prospects in other countries such as Lithuania.

Article in English

Vida Beresnevičiūtė, Tadas Leončikas, Karolis Žibas Migrants’ Life in Lithuania: Public Attitudes and Experiences of Migrants

While implementing the project Third Country Nationals in Lithuania: Assessment and Indexes of Integration Policy, the Centre of Ethnic Studies at the Institute for Social Research carried out an empirical study that aims at disclosing the attitudes and experiences of third country nationals who currently live in Lithuania. The study covers the following surveys: public opinion survey on the attitudes of the Lithuanian population with regard to third country nationals and a survey of third country nationals living in Lithuania. The survey that questioned 480 third country nationals who work, live and study in Lithuania disclosed the socio-demographic profiles of this target group; the conditions of immigrantsí life and work in Lithuania; and their use of educational, social services, and social networks and identified their needs and expectations. The results of the study enables assumptions to be made about the problems third country nationals face with integration and possible challenges for social policy and provides guidelines for future research.

Article in Lithuanian

Vida Beresnevičiūtė, Tadas Leončikas, Karolis Žibas Principles and indicators for assessment of migrants’ integration policy in Lithuania: conclusions and recommendations

Article in Lithuanian